Depression in rural communities validating the ces d scale

Depression has been proposed as a predisposing factor for cancer, but prospective studies have been inconclusive.We examined whether a high level of depressive symptoms, present for a long time, is associated with increased risk of cancer in the elderly.Chronically depressed mood is defined as having a CES-D score of 20 or higher at baseline and 3 and 6 years before baseline.For subjects with one missing depression score (n = 694), the scores at the other two assessments were used for classification of chronically depressed mood status.Obtaining only a single measure of depression in the absence of assessment of duration may, therefore, provide a weakened test of the hypothesis.

Although a CES-D score of 16 is the most commonly used cutoff score for screening purposes in general populations, among older persons using a cutoff score of 20 offers a more stringent approach to the classification of depressed mood, yielding a higher accuracy for the diagnosis of major depression .This study uses data collected at three different times (1982, 1985, and 1988) over a 6-year period to identify chronically depressed older persons and investigates whether these persons were subsequently at higher risk of developing cancer than nonchronically depressed persons.The study excludes persons with cancer at or before baseline and is population based, which may increase its generalizability.The scores of these shorter versions were transformed by use of the procedure recommended by Kohout et al. Briefly, for men and women separately, the scores from East Boston and Iowa were standardized against the 1974–1975 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I), by means of the equation , in parentheses) of CES-D scores from NHANES I for men and women were, respectively, 7.1 (7.2) and 10.0 (9.1).Full details on the use of the modified scales, the methods for transforming the results to accord with the full scale, and the validity of these scales have been published .

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Depression in rural communities validating the ces d scale introduction

Depression in rural communities validating the ces d scale

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